Kerala – Athirappally Waterfalls


Athirappally is a name with a magic because it is a gem within a gem called Kerala. Draped in a lush green silk, God’s Own Country, Kerala, the state on the south west coast of India is a paradise on earth. The first state in India with the lowest birth rate, one of the best in communal harmony, the hightest literacy rate, Kerala is blessed with a natural beauty of the highest level. The west is protected by the arabian sea and the east by the mountain ranges called the western ghats. The finest spices, such as cardamom, black pepper, mace, cinnamon etc. come from this blessed paradise.


Thrissur, historically called Thrissivaperur; in English Trichur; is the cultural capital of Kerala. This city is famous for one of the most ancient temples, dedicated to the God Siva, in the state. In the centre of the city, on a small mount, the temple stands in all its majestic glory, facing another renowned temple, Paramekkavu. It is here, the world renouned Thrissur pooram (the festival of Thrissur) takes place.  In front of this temple, on the green meadow, every year, in the month of April 30 caparisoned elephants and more than a hundred percussionists gather, along with more than a hundred thousand spectators, to host this famous temple festival.

Athirappally Waterfalls

Not far from the city of Thrissur, the famous peaceful Chalakkudy River, meandering through lush green areas, passing by tall coconut palms kissing the skies takes on the form of a turbulent one, frothing around huge rocks to finally give us a majestic display of  a 24 meter high waterfall.

Lush green plants and trees lend the landscape a beauty and charm of its own and the area is home to one of the most diverse flora and fauna in the state. Wildlife thrives here in the blissful surroundings. Dubbed as the Niagara Falls of India, Athirappally waterfall is a three pronged one and attracts tourists from far and wide. A visit to Kerala is definitely not complete without a trip to Athirappally. A visit in the monsoon season is especially beautiful, even if the travelling is not so easy. During this season from June to August, the nature dons a very rich green silk, pleasing to the eye. The monsoon rain is an experience by itself.

Athirappally view during Monsoon. viewsindia athirappallyCREATIVE COMMON LICENCE Courtesy: Mehul Antani


Courtesy: Binu S


Courtesy: Jinoy Johnson



Athirappally is not the only majestic experience in this beautiful state. New articles will show you more.



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References to Kerala and Kerala Tourism

Kerala | Travel | The Guardian

Whether you’re looking for inner peace or just want to laze on some of India’s best beaches, you can stay in style without breaking the bank on Kerala’s beautiful …

Kerala – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kerala often referred to as Keralam, is a state in the south-west region of India on the Malabar coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 as per the States …

Air Freight: Dangerous Goods

SUPATH freight Dangerous Goods











Introduction To Dangerous Goods

Dangerous Goods in air cargo shipping (air freight) are  those goods that are hazardous in different ways to the environment and the world in general. Such goods have been classified into 9  classes with some of the classes having sub-divisions as explained below. The rules for the transport of dangerous goods are called DGR meaning Dangerous Goods Regulation and the IATA publishes the updated version every year.

Please note dangerous goods regulations for dangerous goods are different from the rules used in sea freight (ocean freight). Air cargo regulations tend to be extremely strict in comparison.

The following sections will give you a general idea of regulations in place for air cargo. Details about the documentation (shipper’s declaration, MSDS) will be taken up in separate posts.




IATA The Organisation

Here is what IATA says about itself. Text taken from the organisations website

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is the trade association for the world’s airlines, representing some 250 airlines or 84% of total air traffic. We support many areas of aviation activity and help formulate industry policy on critical aviation issues.


The Classification

  1. Explosives : Explosive substances
  2. Flammable Gases
  3. Flammable Liquids
  4.  Flammable Solids
  5. Oxidising substances
  6. Toxic and Infections Substances
  7. Radioactive Material
  8. Corrosives
  9. Miscellaneous Dangerous goods

The Sub-Divisions

Some of the classes above have sub-divisions and these have their own rules. Details will be given on new posts.

1. Explosives

This division has six sub-divisions. (Courtesy: IMDO)

  1. Division 1.1: substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
  2. Division 1.2: substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
  3. Division 1.3: substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
  4. Division 1.4: substances and articles which present no significant hazard
  5. Division 1.5: very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
  6. Division 1.6: extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard

2. Gases

  1. Division 2.1 Flammable
  2. Division 2.2 Non-Flammable, non-toxic
  3. Division 2.3 Toxic

3. Flammable Solids

  1. Division 4.1 Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid  desensitised explosives
  2. Division 4.2 Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
  3. Division 4.3 Substances, which emit flammable gases when in contact with water

4.  Oxidising substances and organic peroxides

  1. Division 5.1 Oxidising substances
  2. Division 5.2 Organic Peroxides


5.  Toxic And Infectious Substances

Division 6.1 Toxic substances

Division 6.2 Infectious substances


Below is a video about class 1, beautifully presented.




Another informative video



6.  Conclusion

This post gave you a very compact overview of what the freight forwarders refer to as DGR. The abbreviation actually stands for Dangerous Goods Regulations. Companies that store dangerous goods must abide by regulations in place, failing which, action can be taken against them. Safety first is the motto.

Further posts will continue this discussion.


7. Questions?

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References for air cargo (air freight)


Air Cargo – IATA

Air cargo transports goods worth in excess of $6.4 trillion on an annual basis. This is approximately 35% of world trade by value. The sector itself generates …

World Air Cargo Forecast – Boeing

The Boeing Company issues the biennial World Air Cargo Forecast (WACF) to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of the air cargo industry.


Air Cargo – Port Authority of New York & New Jersey

John F. Kennedy International. A photo of being loaded. JFK is the region’s biggest and busiest airport for international air cargo, offering a full range of service …

Air Freight: What You Need To Know

International Air Freight Consultant


Air freight mode of transport is fast but expensive but in a fast-moving world  there is no other faster mode of transport . Businesses must be fast in getting their freight to their clients. Unless sea freight has been mentioned explicitly air freight remains the popular mode of transport in moving small to medium freight. Large freight is shipped by air, when an emergency arises. As air freight is expensive, attention is to be paid to the details and the planning should be fast and correct. Knowledge is power and armed with the right information, a company can keep the cost under control. SUPATH brings you practical suggestions that you can use, and  knowledge that has been tested


Cost Involved : Mandatory Charges

The following charges will definitely be an inseparable part of air freight. There are charges that cannot be listed by SUPATH because the charges vary from country to country and from company to company.

  • Pick up – from the shipper’s place to the freight forwarder or to the airport warehouse
  • Haulage – the lorry service to the airport of departure
  • Handling – air way bill, labelling, warehouse checking, customs formalities
  • air freight rate – based on chargeable weight (gross weight or volume weight: whichever is higher)
  • Fuel Surcharge : usually charged on gross weight. Of late most of the airlines charge this on chargeable weight
  • Risk Surcharge: also called security surcharge. charging mode similar to Fuel Surcharge
  • AMS Fee : Automated Manifest Service Fee: Airlines need to transfer air way bill data to customs authorities. Electronic transfer
  • Warehouse Charges: demurrage charges! ask for tariff. There is no general tariff. Each country and each airport of destination has its own listing! SUPATH can never warn you enough.  Delay could mean a shocking invoice!

Costs Involved : Possible Charges

  • Dangerous Goods Fee : only applicable to hazardous goods (IATA regulation)
  • Development Fee : only if the airport of destination lists this (Canada does)
  • Broker Transfer Fee : depends on who does the brokerage. Applicable if the de-consolidator and the broker doing the customs clearance is not the same company.
  • Crane  or Forklift charges
  • Insurance : If you want to insure the freight, you need to cover it before the pick up of the freight

Documents involved

  • Commercial Invoice(s)
  • Packing Lists (freight to India: if you have  more than one piece please include a packing list)
  • Delivery Note : some companies issue these. Not needed for customs clearance
  • Pro-forma Invoice : NOT accepted by customs in India for clearance.
  • Certificate of Origin : needed in countries that have Agreement on Preferential Tariffs ( goods from India to Europe should carry Certificate of Origin; also called Form A; so that the importer can get reduction on duties. Original certificate is to be tabled.
  • Certificate of Conformity : usually for electronic and electrical goods. Also applicable for telecommunication equipment in certain countries
  • Export Permit : In Europe, if the goods for export fall in of the categories of dual use listed in the appendices of the EC regulation, an export permit in original is mandatory
  • Export declaration : varies from country to country. In India the export clearance takes time and a customs inspection may take place.
  • Customs Bond : in the US, either a single entry bond or a continuous bond is mandatory
  • ATA Carnet : needed only for exhibitions. Not all countries are parties to the ATA Carnet contract.
  • Fumigation Certificate or Non-Wood Packing Declaration may be required by the country of destination
  • IEC : (Import Export Code) : needed by importers in India along with the PAN (Permanent Account Number)


Check the invoices for mistakes (spelling mistakes in names can cost money: e. g. South American destinations)! Keep contact lines open: time is money

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